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Rice is the seed of the grass variety Oryza glaberrima (African rice) or Oryza sativa (Asian rice). As a seed grain, it is the most broadly employed staple food for a huge part of the world's human inhabitants, particularly in Asia and Africa. It is the agricultural commodity among the third-highest worldwide production, after sugarcane (1.9 billion tonnes) and maize (1.0 billion tonnes).

Since sizable parts of sugarcane and maize crops are employed for purposes distinct from human destruction, rice is the most valuable grain concerning human nutrition and caloric intake, contributing higher than one-fifth of the calories used globally by humans. There are numerous varieties of rice and culinary choices tend to vary regionally.

Rice, a monocot, is commonly grown as an annual plant, although in tropical regions it can survive as a perennial and can produce a ratoon crop for up to 30 years. Rice cultivation is well-suited to countries and regions among low labor expenses and high rainfall, as it is labor-intensive to cultivate and needs ample water. However, rice can be mounted essentially anywhere, even on a precipitous hill or mountain range among the use of water-controlling terrace systems. Although its parent varieties are native to Asia and certain portions of Africa, centuries of trade and exportation have executed it commonplace in various cultures comprehensive.

The traditional method for planting rice is flooding the fields while, or after, placing the young seedlings. This easy method needs sound planning and servicing of the water damming and channeling, but decreases the growth of less muscular weed and pest plants that have no submerged growth state, and deters vermin. While flooding is not necessary for the cultivation of rice, all additional methods of irrigation claim higher effort in weed and pest control through growth periods and an unconventional approach for fertilizing the soil.

Etymology & Characteristics

First employed in English in the core of the 13th century, the word "rice" originates from the Old French ris, which originates from the Italian riso, in turn from the Latin orȳza, which originates from the Greek ὄρυζα (oruza). The Greek word is the origin of all European words.

The etymology of the Greek word is unclear. It is sometimes thought to be from the Tamil word அரிசி (arisi), or rather Old Tamil 𑀅𑀭𑀺𑀘𑀺 (arici). However, Krishnamurti disagrees with the notion that Old Tamil arici is the origin of the Greek term, and means that it was acquired from descendants of Proto-Dravidian *wariñci rather. Mayrhofer implies that the immediate beginning of the Greek word is to be sought in Old Iranian words of the varieties *vrīz- or *vrinj-, source of the new Persian word برنج (berenj), but these are conclusively traced back to Indo-Aryan

The rice plant can grow to 1–1.8 m (3.3–5.9 ft) tall, occasionally more depending on the variety and soil fertility. It has long, slender leaves 50–100 cm (20–39 in) large and 2–2.5 cm (0.79–0.98 in) wide. The tiny wind-pollinated flowers are provided in a branched arching to pendulous inflorescence 30–50 cm (12–20 in) high. The tasty seed is a grain 5–12 mm (0.20–0.47 in) high and 2–3 mm (0.079–0.118 in) thick.

Cooking

The kinds of rice are typically categorized as long, medium, and short-grained. The cereals of long-grain rice manage to remain entire after cooking; medium-grain rice becomes extra sticky. Medium-grain rice is practiced for sweet dishes, for risotto in Italy, and various rice dishes, such as arròs negre, in Spain. Some types of long-grain rice that are high in amylopectin, identified as Thai Sticky rice, are normally steamed. A stickier medium-grain rice is employed for sushi; the stickiness concedes rice to keep its shape when molded. Medium-grain rice is employed largely in Japan, including to conduct savory dishes, where it is normally served plain in a separate dish. Short-grain rice is often practiced for rice pudding.

Nutrition

Rice is the staple food of above half the world's inhabitants. It is the prevailing dietary energy authorization for 17 countries in Asia and the Pacific, 9 countries in North and South America and 8 countries in Africa. Rice gives 20% of the world's dietary energy supply, while grain supplies 19% and maize (corn) 5%.

Cooked, unenriched, white, long-grained rice is formed of 68% water, 28% carbohydrates, 3% protein, and negligible fat. During a 100 gram portion, it produces 130 calories and carries no micronutrients in notable amounts, among all less than 10% of the Daily Value. Cooked, white, short-grained rice further produces 130 calories and carries moderate amounts of B vitamins, iron, and manganese (10–17% DV) per 100-gram amount.

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